Bones is a composite material consisting largely of calcium phosphate and collagen and making up the skeleton of most vertebrates.

There are five types of bones in human body:

  •  Long
  • Short
  • Flat
  • Irregular
  • Sesamoid.

When a bone breaks it is known as fracture. A break is of two types hairline fracture (a thin break in the bone) and the bone that's broken into two pieces.

Types of Frecture

  • Complete fracture: it is a fracture in which bone has broken into two pieces.
  • Single fracture: as the name suggests single fracture is the fracture when the bone is broken in one place.
  • Transverse fracture: It is a fracture at right angles to the bone’s axis.
  • Oblique fracture: In which the bone breaks in a sloped pattern.
  • Green stick fracture:  It is when the bone cracks on one side
  • Comminuted fracture: It is a fracture when the bone is broken into two or more pieces.
  •  A bowing fracture: It is only happened in kids, it is a situation when the bone bends but doesn’t break.
  •  An open fracture: It is a bone sticking through the skin. 

The most common causes of fractures are:

Majority of fractures occurs because of stress on a bone. The other issues are :

  • Trauma-An accident, a fall or a tackle during a football game can all result in fractures.
  • Medical conditions-a fracture can be the result of some underlying medical conditions which weaken the bones, for example osteoporosis and some cancers.
  • Tumors growing near the brain.
  • Sports injuries
  • Walking or running for long distances can cause fractures as it is overuse.

First aid for fractured bones

·         Stop bleeding by applying pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage or a clean cloth.

·         Don’t move the injured area

·         Apply ice packs to reduce swelling.

·         If the person feels faint or is breathing in short, rapid breaths, lay the person down with the head slightly lower than the trunk and, if possible, elevate the legs.

Casts and splints

Casts and splints are used to protect the broken bones and tissues. When a bone is injured casts and splints hold the bones in place while they heal. They also reduce swelling and pain. Casts can be made of plaster or fiberglass — a plastic that can be shaped.

Warning signs after casts

If you feel any of the following symptoms consult a doctor for advice

·         If you have the feeling that splint or cast is too tight

·         If there is a burning sensation on your skin.

·         Swelling in excess

·         Numbness in your hand or foot.

Taking care and precautions during your casts

You should follow your doctor’s instructions. Following are some guidelines for you to take care of casts.

  • Keep Splint and cast dry because moisture weakens the plaster. For this use waterproof shields.
  • Do not walk on a walking cast until it gets dry.
  • Try to avoid dirt.
  • Never pull out the padding from cast
  • Do not trim the cast before asking your doctor
  • Keep an eye on your skin if it becomes red around the cast, consult a doctor.

Never remove the cast yourself. You may cut your skin or prevent proper healing of your injury.

Recovery Fractures take weeks or may be months to heal, depending on what kind of the injury has happened and how well you follow your doctor's instructions. Pain usually stops long before the fracture is solid enough to handle the stresses of normal activity.

As you will lose strength during recovery, specific exercises will help you recover normal strength.

For helping to heal the broken bones a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D should be taken.

For calcium you can take milk every day. Milk can be skimmed or semi skimmed. You should eat pot of yoghurt(100 g). hard cheese such as cheddar or edam are rich in calcium.

Bread, soyamilk, vegetables like spinach, curlykale, okra  and fruits like mixed peel, dried figs are good sources of calcium. Nuts and almonds can be taken for calcium.

For vitamin D you should take cooked salmon or mackerel. Tuna fish is rich in vitamin D.  exposure to the sun is very important for vitamin D as the UV rays in sunshine trigger your skin to make vitamin D.


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